Later on, a more recent form of the language known as pre-Middle Persian was used. There is reliable evidence that the first regular postal system in the world began in ancient Iran. Riders and horse-drawn wagons carried mail that consisted mostly of governmental dispatches from one place to another. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, the regular postal service began in ancient Iran in the sixth century BC during the reign of the first King of Achaemenid, Cyrus the Great.
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The postal system was swift, with men and horses waiting along the road at intervals during the day-long journey and not stopping for anything: snow, rain, or heat. The service used a system of messengers known as Chapaar in Persian. The messengers carried the mail on horseback and relay stations were close to one another so that a horse could travel without rest or food. These relay stations were post offices or post houses known as Chapaar-Khaneh and messengers stopped there to pass their packets of mail to another messenger or to change their horses. The concept of human rights is a burning issue in the present day.
While it may seem like a new development, the idea of human rights has its roots in ancient Persia. Cyrus freed the slaves and gave people the right to choose their own religion by establishing racial equality. This declaration was recorded in a baked clay cylinder known as the Cyrus Cylinder. It was written in the Akkadian language with cuneiform script. The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered among the ruins of Babylon in Mesopotamia in and is currently at the British Museum. This declaration has been translated into all six official languages of the United Nations and its provisions parallel the first four articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
It has been dubbed as the first declaration of human rights which has been supported by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, in a book, The White Revolution of Iran. Modern animation has taken a great leap forward but its history dates back to the Bronze Age in Persia. An earthenware goblet discovered in the Burnt City in the Sistan and Baluchestan province is believed to be 5, years old. The goblet depicts a series of drawings of a goat jumping towards a tree and eating its leaves.
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Sequential pictures similar to the one on the goblet can be found throughout medieval Islamic Persia. Discovered by Italian archaeologists from a burial site, the special relationship between the images was not immediately noticed. This relationship was discovered years later by Iranian archaeologist Dr Mansur Sadjadi. Researchers have been at odds ever since over the significance of the artwork on the bowl.
It was believed to depict the goat eating from the Assyrian Tree of Life, but archaeologists now believe that the goblet predates the Assyrian civilization by 1, years. The taxation system can be traced back to ancient Persian. It was an important component of the Achaemenid state administration and was known as Achaemenid Taxation.
In the Persian Empire under Cyrus II and Cambyses, subjects were mostly obliged to deliver only gifts, and regular taxes were first introduced under the rule of Darius I r. While the system of state taxation already existed under Cyrus II, it was not regulated and people who did not pay taxes had to deliver gifts and vice versa. While Persians, as the ruling people, were exempt from monetary taxes, they were not exempt from taxes in kind.
Information on the collection of the taxes in southwestern Iran during the reign of Darius I has been found in the Elamite Fortification document. Some of the records show receipts for small livestock being paid as state taxes. Approximately 7, Babylonian talents of silver about ,kg were paid by the people to the Achaemenid rulers each year excluding the Indian satrapy which paid its contribution in the form of gold dust. A qanat is a gently sloping underground channel that carries water from an aquifer or water well to houses and fields.
It is used for the irrigation of crops and for drinking water. It is an old system of supplying water from deep wells via a series of vertical access shafts. It is still a reliable means of supplying water to human settlements and for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. It was first developed by the Persian people in Iran around the first millennium BC.
It slowly spread westwards and eastwards from there. The qanat tunnels, which could be several kilometers long, were hand-dug and the same size as the person digging the tunnel. The vertical shafts, sunk at intervals of about 20 to 30 meters, were used to remove excavated materials and also acted as ventilation and access for repairs. Main qanat tunnels sloped down from pre-mountainous alluvial fans to an outlet in villages. From there the canals distributed water to fields for irrigation. These structures were built with great scientific vision and allowed Persian farmers to survive during long dry periods without surface water.
These qanats are still used in many places in China, Morocco, and America.
The Persian Empire of Ancient Iran
All these discoveries have both utilitarian and intellectual value and show that the Persian civilization was one of the most advanced civilizations in the history of the world. The development of abstract concepts like human rights and taxation has emerged from this civilization which is still highly valued and studied. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. The Persians were the first people to establish regular routes of communication between three continents—Africa, Asia and Europe.
The ancient Persians of the Achaemenid Empire created art in many forms, including metalwork, rock carvings, weaving and architecture. As the Persian Empire expanded to encompass other artistic centers of early civilization, a new style was formed with influences from these sources. Early Persian art included large, carved rock reliefs cut into cliffs, such as those found at Naqsh-e Rustam, an ancient cemetery filled with the tombs of Achaemenid kings.
The elaborate rock murals depict equestrian scenes and battle victories. Ancient Persians were also known for their metalwork. In the s, smugglers discovered gold and silver artifacts among ruins near the Oxus River in present-day Tajikistan.
The artifacts included a small golden chariot, coins and bracelets decorated in a griffon motif. The griffon is a mythical creature with the wings and head of an eagle and the body of a lion, and a symbol of the Persian capital of Persepolis. British diplomats and members of the military serving in Pakistan brought roughly of these gold and silver pieces—known as the Oxus Treasure—to London where they are now housed at the British Museum. The history of carpet weaving in Persia dates back to the nomadic tribes. The ancient Greeks prized the artistry of these hand-woven rugs—famous for their elaborate design and bright colors.
Today, most Persian rugs are made of wool, silk, and cotton. Embossed bas relief carvings of servants bringing gifts to the king on the sidewall of stairs in front of Tachara Palace, also known as the Palace of Darius, in Persepolis. The Achaemenian palaces of Persepolis were built upon massive terraces. They were decorated with ornamental facades that included the long rock relief carvings for which the ancient Persians were famous.
Many people think of Persia as synonymous with Islam , though Islam only became the dominant religion in the Persian Empire after the Arab conquests of the seventh century. The first Persian Empire was shaped by a different religion: Zoroastrianism. Named after the Persian prophet Zoroaster also known as Zarathustra , Zoroastrianism is one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. Zoroaster, who likely lived sometime between and B.
Persian Empire - HISTORY
The Achaemenian kings were devout Zoroastrians. By most accounts, Cyrus the Great was a tolerant ruler who allowed his subjects to speak their own languages and practice their own religions. Hebrew scriptures praise Cyrus the Great for freeing the Jewish people of Babylon from captivity and allowing them to return to Jerusalem. This period of time is sometimes called the Pax Persica, or Persian Peace. The Achaemenid dynasty finally fell to the invading armies of Alexander the Great of Macedon in B. Subsequent rulers sought to restore the Persian Empire to its Achaemenian boundaries, though the empire never quite regained the enormous size it had achieved under Cyrus the Great.
The Achaemenid Persian Empire B. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
https://ufn-web.com/wp-includes/19/retrouver-le-portable-dune-personne.php The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to A. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history. The chief leader, known as the Sultan, was given absolute Its history is marked by many important inventions that changed the world, including the concept